A deal brokered by Henry Clay Frick exchanged Standard's iron interests for U.S. Steel stock and gave Rockefeller and his son membership on the company's board of directors. ", Miami's main east-west street is named Flagler Street and is the main shopping street in Downtown Miami. Thanks to Henry Flagler people were able to enjoy Florida because his railroad made it possible to travel faster and to more locations along the East Coast and down to the Keys. Two years after his first wife died in 1881, he married again. Only his son Harry survived of the three children by his first marriage in 1853 to Mary Harkness.  Robert Nobel had established his own refining enterprise in the abundant and cheaper Russian oil fields, including the region's first pipeline and the world's first oil tanker. This project sparked Flagler's interest in creating a new "American Riviera." These are the best facts for Henry Flagler, collected by our users from the web: (You can find the source through the icon at the end of each fact). It was Flagler's idea to use the rebate system to strengthen the firm's position against competitors and the transporting enterprises alike.  The cartel received preferential treatment as a high-volume shipper, which included not just steep rebates of up to 50% for their product but also rebates for the shipment of competing products. These included, among many others, Continental Oil, which became Conoco, now part of ConocoPhillips; Standard of Indiana, which became Amoco, now part of BP; Standard of California, which became Chevron; Standard of New Jersey, which became Esso (and later, Exxon), now part of ExxonMobil; Standard of New York, which became Mobil, now part of ExxonMobil; and Standard of Ohio, which became Sohio, now part of BP. The Spanish-influenced hotel made of concrete and native coquina shells was designed with the finest materials.  In the 1900's Florida's population was just 528,000 so with the demand for laborers across the south and the shortage of jobs in the north, workers needing jobs were drawn to the south. This subsidiary, the Empire Transportation Company, which Joseph D. Potts created in 1865 and also ran, owned other assets including a small fleet of ships on the Great Lakes. Sales: $2.01 billion Standard went on to build and buy oil pipelines and, by 1884, it controlled not only refining, but transportation of crude oil. Henry Morrison Flagler is a well known Business. " Over time foreign competition and new finds abroad eroded his dominance. Having achieved his goal of transforming Standard Oil into a monopoly, he retained his seat on the board of directors and turned over his day-to-day responsibilities to younger workers. He never recovered and died in Palm Beach of his injuries on May 20 at 83 years of age. Over thirty years, Flagler had invested about $50 million in railroad, home and hotel construction and had made donations to suffering farmers after the freeze in 1894. Flagler and Rockefeller's oil company was one of several in Cleveland and among many scattered throughout the country. Henry M. Flagler, in full Henry Morrison Flagler, (born January 2, 1830, Hopewell, New York, U.S.—died May 20, 1913, West Palm Beach, Florida), American financier and partner of John D. Rockefeller, Sr., in establishing the Standard Oil Company. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. By then the trust still had a 70% market share of the refined oil market but only 14% of the U.S. crude oil supply. Besides its two refineries and a barrel plant in Cleveland, it possessed a fleet of tank cars and warehouses in the oil regions as well as warehouses and tanks in New York. It supplied kerosene by tank cars that brought the fuel to local markets, and tank wagons then delivered to retail customers, thus bypassing the existing network of wholesale jobbers. Within six years, Henry was earning enough money to purchase a showy Victorian house in Bellevue. But in February 2014 the college's vice president of enrollment … "Henry Morrison Flagler," Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. His personal dedication to the state of Florida was demonstrated when he began construction on his private residence, Kirkside, in St. Augustine.  The court ruled that the trust originated in illegal monopoly practices and ordered it to be broken up into 34 new companies. So he laid out a city across the lake and built homes, churches and government buildings, creating the city of West Palm Beach. (1830–1913). Carrie died at the age of 3. The Alcazar is today the Lightner Museum, next to the Casa Monica Hotel in St. Augustine that Flagler bought from Franklin W. Smith. Rockefeller.  A spouse's mental incapacity was later restored by the legislature as a grounds for dissolution of marriage, and remains the law of Florida today. If Smith could raise $50,000, Flagler would invest $150,000 and they would build a hotel together. Entrepreneur #58160. Isaac was an itinerant Presbyterian minister who settled in Toledo, Ohio, in 1836. Flagler first came to St. Augustine in 1878 (to improve his first wife’s health) and he hated it! The business also profited from the sale of seeds and farm implements. The company collapsed when the war undercut commercial demand for salt. 21 May 1898 in New York City; d. 10 December 1990 in Los Angeles, California), controversial twentieth-century indu…, Henry II (Holy Roman emperor and German king), Henry Morton Stanley Circumnavigates Africa's Lake Victoria and Explores the Entire Length of the Congo River, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/henry-flagler. It opened in 1938. Flagler College. Many left the train in mid-state to work on farms and in groves. Henry Flagler was a Capricorn and was born in the G.I. Purchase the … He generally treated the workers, many of them African-Americans, well, but he didn't want them living near him. , Flagler's third wife, Mary Lily Kenan Flagler, was born in North Carolina; the top-ranked Kenan-Flagler Business School at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is named for Flagler and his wife, who was an early benefactor of UNC along with her family and descendants. In 1901, Flagler married for a third time. Standard Oil grew to become one of the largest shippers of oil and kerosene in the country. Both parents had been married twice before and Henry had three half sisters and one half brother. Most of his donations were made anonymously. Two years later, Flagler built the Palm Beach Inn (renamed The Breakers in 1901), overlooking the Atlantic Ocean in Palm Beach. American financier Henry M. Flagler partnered with John D. Rockefeller, Sr., in establishing the Standard Oil Company. Henry M. Flagler was a founder of the Florida East Coast Railroad and also of standard oil. Flagler and Rockefeller developed some innovative business tactics. John Davison Rockefeller (1839-1937), American industrialist and philanthropist, founded the Standard Oil Company, the Unive…, 3225 Gallows Road Flagler's cousin, Stephen Harkness, invested in the company with the understanding that Flagler be made a partner. , Flagler and Rockefeller began a publicity campaign to put the company and themselves in a better light. He also established many of the state's newspapers. Ida Alice (née Shourds) Flagler had been a caregiver for Mary. In historical perspective, "Flagler built his tourist empire — and modern Florida — by exploiting two brutal labor systems that blanketed the South for 50 years after the Civil War: convict leasing and debt peonage. (703) 846-3000 Whitehall is now a museum honoring Flagler's life and Florida history. FLORIDA KEYS — Henry Morrison Flagler never lived in the Florida Keys, but he left a more lasting and valuable mark on the island chain than many lifelong residents. Flagler's son dropped out of school and failed to follow his father into business, causing a lifelong rift between the two men. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).  Built in 1902 as a wedding present to Mary Lily, Whitehall (now the Flagler Museum) was a 60,000-square-foot (5,600 m2) 60,000-square-foot (5,600 m²) winter retreat that established the Palm Beach "season" of about 8–12 weeks, for the wealthy of America's Gilded Age. The Paris Rothschilds jumped into the fray providing financing. He often slipped away from the affairs through secret doorways installed in the house. At the time, Key West was Florida's most populous city, with a population of 20,000, and it was also the United States' deep water port closest to the canal that the U.S. government proposed to build in Panama. The Gale Group, 2000, http://www.galenet.com/servlet/BioRC(December 20, 2000). Encyclopedia of World Biography. Encyclopedia.com. Standard Oil had gained an aura of invincibility, always prevailing against competitors, critics, and political enemies. By 1869, Cleveland was the second largest refinery city, behind New York City. created by factobot on … Flagler was devoted to her and read to her every night when he returned home from work. "1892-A Year of Crucial Decisions in Florida", This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 10:27. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. 1853 Flagler marries Mary Harkness; their children are Jennie Louise (1855-1889), Carrie (1858-1861), and Henry (Harry) Harkness (1870-1952).. 1862 In Saginaw, Michigan, Flagler founds the Flagler and York Salt Company; it closes in 1865 after the demand for salt declines.. 1870 John D. Rockefeller and Henry M. Flagler form a partnership that would become Standard Oil.. 1878 Henry and Mary … The Bingham-Flagler marriage (and questions about her death or possible murder) figured prominently in several books that appeared in the 1980s, when the Bingham family sold the newspaper in the midst of great acrimony. Harkness and Company, at a salary of $5 per month plus room and board. From there, he became a developer in Florida and started the Florida East Coast Railway. One of the most popular annual events there was an agricultural fair where awards were given for the largest pineapple or the best- looking head of lettuce, etc. The convict lease system in Florida was especially violent. It soon was doing one tenth of all the petroleum business in the United States. Martin, Sidney Walter, Florida's Flagler University of Georgia Press, 1949. After completing the divorce proceedings, Flagler married Mary Lily Kenan, a socially prominent North Carolinian, who was 37 years his junior.  Despite improving the quality and availability of kerosene products while greatly reducing their cost to the public (the price of kerosene dropped by nearly 80% over the life of the company), Standard Oil's business practices created intense controversy. Flagler wanted to take advantage of additional trade with Cuba and Latin America as well as the increased trade with the west that the Panama Canal would bring. By 1880, according to the New York World, Standard Oil was "the most cruel, impudent, pitiless, and grasping monopoly that ever fastened upon a country. A federal statute outlawed peonage, but in practice, it overlapped with convict labor. ." , When Flagler's first wife Mary (née Harkness) fell sick, his physician recommended they travel to Jacksonville for the winter to escape the brutal conditions of the North. The tour of what was the Hotel Ponce de Leon Hotel built by Henry Flagler is definitely worth taking. Encyclopedia.com. Also, convict leasing did exist and took a long time to end in Florida. Henry Morrison Flagler was born on January 2, 1830 in Hopewell, New York, to Reverend and Mrs. Isaac Flagler. He opened one of the most famous hotels, Ponce de Leon, that hosted presidents and other peoples of high standings. Flagler and Rockefeller saw themselves as the industry's saviors, "an angel of mercy" absorbing the weak and making the industry as a whole stronger, more efficient, and more competitive. By the end of the 1870s, Standard was refining over 90% of the oil in the U.S., In 1877, Standard clashed with Thomas A. Scott the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, its chief hauler. Rather than try to influence the price of crude oil directly, Standard Oil had been exercising indirect control by altering oil storage charges to suit market conditions. ." Most Popular ★ Boost . Flagler earned $5 a month, plus room and board. Along the way, Flagler built additional hotels, establishing Florida's east coast cities as tourist destinations.  The railroad, seeing Standard's incursion into the transportation and pipeline fields, struck back and formed a subsidiary to buy and build oil refineries and pipelines.  Although Standard Oil was a partnership, Flagler was credited as the brain behind the booming oil refining business. 50 Most Interesting facts About O Henry You should know.  The Royal Poinciana Hotel was at the time the largest wooden structure in the world. Miami is a subtropical city located in sunshine state Florida in between the Everglades and North Atlantic Ocean. The Rockefellers went on to become one of the most prominent families in the United States. After his first wife's death, Flagler developed a new business interest. During the second half of his life, he developed land and built railroads in Florida, establishing agriculture and tourism as the state's leading industries. , Flagler attended local schools through eighth-grade. Educational sites. It opened in 1888. Background. Owen, Jack, Palm Beach Scandals: An Intimate Guide, Rainbow Books, 1992. They lived near each other and shared an office. In later years, John Rockefeller acknowledged that Flagler was the "brains" behind Standard Oil.  Part of this scheme was the announcement of sharply increased freight charges. Escaped peons were often arrested for vagrancy and leased out as convicts. Even in Florida, Flagler is largely known only as the founder of Palm Beach, which remains a resort community catering to the wealthy.  The public and the press were immediately suspicious of this new legal entity, and other businesses seized upon the idea and emulated it, further inflaming public sentiment. He later joined Daniel in a grain business started with his uncle Lamon in Bellevue, Ohio. The average laborer in 1905 earned $390 a year and surgeons averaged $1625 a year. Flagler lived to see the Key West railroad open in 1912. , Flagler was entombed in the Flagler family mausoleum at Memorial Presbyterian Church in St. Augustine alongside his first wife, Mary Harkness; daughter, Jenny Louise; and granddaughter, Marjorie. 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